Tuesday, October 20, 2020

Tag: neuroscience

Researchers discover new path to neuron regeneration after spinal cord injury

Published: September 16, 2020

Dynamic networks that specialize in the transmission of information generally consist of multiple components, including not only primary processors, like computers, for example, but also numerous support applications and services. The human nervous system is fundamentally very similar—neurons, like computers, process and transmit information, sending molecular signals through axons to other neurons, all of which are supported by non-neuronal components, including an array of cells known as glia.

Stroke Drug Boosts Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

Published: December 17, 2019

Four months after treating them, Yasuhiro Shiga, MD, PhD, checked on his rats. Walking into the lab, he carried minimal expectations. Treating spinal cord injuries with stem cells had been tried by many people, many times before, with modest success at best. The endpoint he was specifically there to measure — pain levels — hadn’t seemed to budge in past efforts.

FSU research sheds light on spinal cord injuries

Published: January 21, 2019

Thousands of people worldwide suffer severe spinal cord injuries each year, but little is known about why these injuries often continue to deteriorate long after the initial damage occurs.

Yi Ren, a professor of biomedical sciences at the Florida State University College of Medicine, is making progress in understanding why such significant harm is inflicted in the weeks and months after a spinal injury. In a study published today in the journal Nature Neuroscience, Ren explained how a natural immune system response may contribute to additional injury.

Scientist found genes to promote spinal cord regeneration

Published: December 10, 2018

Humans can regenerate their peripheral nerves (PNS), but the regenerative ability does not extend to the central nervous system (CNS). So, what changed? Previously, the focus had been on identifying the cellular and molecular contributors that differentiate this regenerative ability in CNS vs. PNS. But now there seems to be a shift towards recognizing the underlying genetic makeup differences between the two.

Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified some of the critical steps taken by peripheral nerves – those in the arms and legs – as they regenerate.

Spinal injuries throw body clocks off-schedule, new study shows

Published: December 3, 2018

Spinal injuries throw body clocks off-scheduleIn the hours and days following a spinal cord injury, the gears that control the body’s internal clocks fall profoundly out of sync, impacting body temperature, hormone fluctuation, immunity and the timing of a host of other bodily processes, according to new CU Boulder research.

The study, funded by the U.S. Department of Defense and published Monday in the journal eNeuro, is among the first to comprehensively assess how spinal injury impacts circadian rhythms, or the 24-hour-cycles of physiological processes. If replicated in humans, the findings could lead to new “chronotherapies” to reset off-kilter clocks and potentially improve long-term recovery.

Case Western Reserve Researchers Restore Breathing and Partial Forelimb Function in Rats with Chronic...

Published: November 27, 2018 | Spinal Cord Injury: ,

Promising results provide hope for humans suffering from chronic paralysis

Millions of people worldwide are living with chronic spinal cord injuries, with 250,000 to 500,000 new cases each year—most from vehicle crashes or falls. The most severe spinal cord injuries completely paralyze their victims and more than half impair a person’s ability to breathe. Now, a breakthrough study published in Nature Communications has demonstrated, in animal models of chronic injury, that long-term, devastating effects of spinal cord trauma on breathing and limb function may be reversible.

New approach could jumpstart breathing after spinal cord injury

Published: October 11, 2018 | Spinal Cord Injury:

A research team at the Krembil Research Institute in Toronto has developed an innovative strategy that could help to restore breathing following traumatic spinal cord injury.

The team, led by principal investigator Dr. Michael Fehlings – a neurosurgeon/neuroscientist, specialist in spinal cord injury and senior scientist at UHN – published its findings today in the journal Nature in a paper titled “Cervical excitatory neurons sustain breathing after spinal cord injury.”

Spinal Neurons Grown From Stem Cells For First Time

Published: August 22, 2018

Modern medicine has still not managed to crack the problem of spinal cord injuries that result in significant paralysis or loss of functional status.

There are numerous factors that influence the inability to restore movement or autonomous bodily control to these patients. A prominent example of these is the inability to cultivate new neurons that make up and power the spinal cord.

However, some researchers have claimed that they have successfully induced ‘generic’ human stem cells to differentiate into stem cells that apply more specifically to the spine.

Gene therapy restores hand function after spinal cord injury in rats

Published: June 14, 2018 | Spinal Cord Injury:

Researchers at King’s College London and the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience have shown that rats with spinal cord injuries can re-learn skilled hand movements after being treated with a gene therapy.

In a break with dogma, myelin boosts neuron growth in spinal cord injuries

Published: May 23, 2018

The molecule inhibits adult axon regeneration, but appears to stimulate young neurons

Recovery after severe spinal cord injury is notoriously fraught, with permanent paralysis often the result. In recent years, researchers have increasingly turned to stem cell-based therapies as a potential method for repairing and replacing damaged nerve cells. They have struggled, however, to overcome numerous innate barriers, including myelin, a mixture of insulating proteins and lipids that helps speed impulses through adult nerve fibers but also inhibits neuronal growth.