Tag: Nervous System
A newly discovered pathway leading to the regeneration of central nervous system (CNS) brain cells (neurons) in a type of roundworm (C. elegans) sheds light on the adult human nervous system’s ability to regenerate.
The findings, which appear online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, soon may lead to treatments that enhance nerve cell regeneration in humans with spinal cord injury and paralysis.
Autonomic Dysreflexia is a life threatening condition that can cause death.
The most common causes of Autonomic Dysreflexia are bladder and bowel distension.
Signs and Symptoms: Raised BP, bradycardia, pounding headache, flushing, sweating or blotching above level of injury; pale, cold, goosebumps below level of injury.
Injuries to the central nervous system — the brain and spinal cord — are particularly devastating because the body doesn’t regenerate neurons to repair connections between vital circuits and restore function. In other words, the damage is permanent or even fatal.
A variety of early studies in animals and humans indicate the field of neural regeneration research is advancing. A 20-year-old man in Naples, Florida recently enrolled in the first clinical trial to assess the ability of stem cells to repair spinal cord injuries. But, a team of scientists from McGill University in Montreal, Canada, are working an entirely different method to inject hope into an otherwise bleak prognosis.
People who get serious spinal cord injuries have to adjust to a lot. That may be why, in the first year after their injuries, they are at serious risk for a potentially fatal condition called autonomic dysreflexia. Autonomic dysreflexia shows that the body can take itself down if its signals are ignored.
Nerves will try to get useful signals through to the brain any way they can. Sometimes this can be a good thing: Nerve cells were once thought to be unable to repair themselves after damage, but now we know they can slowly heal.
Autonomic dysreflexia often goes unrecognised in patients with spinal cord injury. Health professionals must be able to recognise when patients are at risk.
A young patient with tetraplegia arrives in the emergency department with a severe headache, dilated pupils, beads of sweat on their forehead, chest pain, bradycardia and a blood pressure of 280/130. What do you think is happening? Recreational drug use? A hypertensive crisis with a renal, endocrine or neurological cause? Is your immediate response to carry out an electrocardiogram and blood tests? In fact, this life-threatening emergency could be caused by something as simple as a full bladder.
The nervous system controls movement, sensation, thinking and behavioral activities. It consists of various elements which comprise the whole complex working process. It is not segmented as individual working parts but rather a very complicated system that overlaps in layers of functions.
Two anatomic components of the nervous system are the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is important to distinguish where your injury is to understand the recovery process. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. Both are housed in structures made of bone. The brain is encased in the skull for which there is only room for the brain and the fluid that surrounds it for protection and cushioning.
Motor commands issued by the brain to activate arm muscles take two different routes. As the research group led by Professor Silvia Arber at the Basel University Biozentrum and the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research has now discovered, many neurons in the spinal cord send their instructions not only towards the musculature, but at the same time also back to the brain via an exquisitely organized network. This dual information stream provides the neural basis for accurate control of arm and hand movements. These findings have now been published in Cell.
Finding a solution for brain and spinal cord injury
The Fournier lab at the Montreal Neurological Institute is working to answer a fundamental question: what happens after a nerve cell gets injured? Damage to nerve cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and the spinal cord, often means permanent damage due to these cells’ limited capacity to repair and regenerate.
Unlike many other cells in the human body, adult nerve cells in the CNS cannot spontaneously repair. Hence, damage to the spinal cord can result in permanent paralysis to the body parts below the site of injury.
The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. Vertebrates — animals with backbones and spinal columns — have central and peripheral nervous systems.
The central nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord and retina. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, ganglia (clusters of neurons) and nerves that connect to one another and to the central nervous system.
(KTHV) — A few years ago, if someone was diagnosed with a paralyzing spinal cord injury, the idea of that patient ever walking again would be out of the question.